What actions should be taken and by whom?

Using academic source, describe what grand challenge the U.S. government must address over the next decade. This can be at the federal, state or local level. Why is this challenge so important? What are the public administration aspects of this challenge? What actions should be taken and by whom? Finally, what does success look like?

Why is your chosen policy choice better than the other theories?

PUBLIC POLICY, POLICY CYCLE, AND POLICY THEORIES
We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”
–Thomas Jefferson
Policy theories are academic models that seek to understand why some public policies are implemented or not implemented. Those concerned with an analysis of public policy use policy theories to understand the intersection of policy-making and public policy. Whereas there are many, many different policy theories; you will focus on elite theory, group theory, and institutional theory.
Elite theory is premised on the idea that a small group of elites affect public policies. These elites could further understand as political elites (important members of government), social elites (movie stars, musicians, athletes, etc.), or economic elites (Wall Street, the 1%, etc.).
Group theory is premised on the idea that groups of individuals advocate a common, public policy concern, that then affects public policy. Groups span the political, economic, and social public policy spectrum. Here are a couple of groups that advocate particular, public policies: pro-life advocates (Susan B Anthony List), pro-choice advocates (Planned Parenthood), gun rights advocates (National Rifle Association), and gun control advocates (Everytown for Gun Safety.)
Institutional theory is premised on the idea that institutions affect public policies. Whereas government (both in the capacity of federalism and the executive, legislative, and judicial branches) is typically the focus of institutional theorists; other institutions such as corporations, non-profits, political parties, etc., can also affect public policy. It is the collective interaction of these various institutions that results in policy formation. *See the Unit 4 Overview for a detailed example how Affordable Care Act (Obama Care) resulted from an amalgamation of institutional input.
Assignment direction :
Directions: Using the following outline template, craft a full sentence outline. Lumen’s Principles of Public Speaking has an excellent example of a full sentence outline. Please include the following:
Select two specific examples of public policy from one of the following fields:
Economic policy
An example of economic policy is U.S. budget deficit spending.
Education policy
An example of education policy is the implementation of national education standards.
Environmental policy
An example of environmental policy is the Clean Air Act.
Foreign policy
An example of foreign policy is how we conduct trade with other countries.
Healthcare policy
An example of healthcare policy is the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)
Welfare policy
An example of welfare policy is Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF).
For each example, explain how this public policy can be analyzed by one of the following policy theories: elite theory, group theory, and/or institutional theory.
Why is your chosen policy choice better than the other theories?
Support your response with at least two different reasons.
What are the strengths and/or flaws of using this policy theory within your example?
Support your response with at least two different examples.
How does your chosen, policy theory inform the policy cycle within your example?
Support your examples with information from the text and at least two, additional academic sources.
Correct grammar and syntax.
APA format.
Comments from Customer
Discipline: engagement civic citizen driven public policy

How do these examples inform the public policy cycle?

Topic: Policy Cycle, Policy Formation, and Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Actions
Directions: Please address the following while adhering to the Discussion Board Rubric:
Select a specific example of public policy from one of the following fields:
Economic policy
An example of economic policy is U.S. budget deficit spending.
Education policy
An example of education policy is the implementation of national education standards.
Environmental policy
An example of environmental policy is the Clean Air Act.
Foreign policy
An example of foreign policy is how we conduct trade with other countries.
Healthcare policy
An example of healthcare policy is the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)
Welfare policy
An example of welfare policy is Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF).
Review the official website of the three branches of U.S. government: The White House, Congress, and the Supreme Court.
White House: https://www.whitehouse.gov/
United States Congress: https://www.congress.gov/
Supreme Court: https://www.supremecourt.gov/
Conduct a keyword search of the official websites for public policies pertinent to your chosen public policy. Each website of three branches of government include a search option on the top of each page.
Select a total of two examples from executive legislative, or judicial actions that have helped or hindered your chosen, public policy. You can pick from the different branches or you can pick two from the same branch.
Summarize the executive, legislative, and/or judicial actions.
How do these examples inform the public policy cycle?
The policy cycle is a process that explains how public policy is created, implemented, and evaluated. Although there are many different variations of the public policy cycle, we shall use a simplified, four step public policy cycle:
Step 1: Agenda Setting
How public policy concerns are understood and how various interests highlight the public policy concern.
Step 2: Policy Formation
The crafting of public policy solutions. Public policy solutions are mostly addressed through legislation or regulation.
Step 3: Policy Implementation
How public policy is applied via federal, state, and/or local endeavors.
Step 4: Policy Evaluation
How public policy is assessed: success or failure.
Policy formation is the second step of the policy cycle.
Often, it is the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the U.S. government that affect public policy via policy formation. Policy formation at government level typically involves regulation, management, education, taxing, and market incentives (Kraft, 2018).
The Second Amendment is a prime example of how executive, legislative, and judicial branches influenced public policy through policy formation. The Second Amendment of the United States Constitution: “A well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.” However, since the ratification of the Constitution in 1789 the 2nd Amendment continues to be interpreted and amended via executive, legislative, and judicial actions. There is little that is “well-regulated” about current American gun policy.
The following policy formation examples highlight one executive, legislative, and judicial action:
On February 20, 2018, the White House issued a Presidential Memorandum that requested the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives investigate how to regulate bump stocks and other devices (White House, 2018). Later that year the Department of Justice instructed to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives to outlaw bump stocks because the addition of this device fell “within the definition of “machinegun” under federal law, as such devices allow a shooter of a semiautomatic firearm to initiate a continuous firing cycle with a single pull of the trigger” (ATF, n.d.).
On June 26, 1934 Congress passed the National Firearms Act. This legislation required firearms to be registered and taxed. In addition, the following weapons were outlawed: “shotguns and rifles having barrels less than 18 inches in length, certain firearms described as “any other weapons,” machineguns, and firearm mufflers and silencers” (ATF, n.d.).
District of Columbia v Heller, 2008. In 2001, Washington D.C. passed municipal legislation that required registration of guns (with qualifications on what guns could or could not be registered) and that all guns stored within homes to be kept “unloaded and disassembled or bound by a trigger lock.” Dick Heller, a police officer, sued the District of Columbia because he was not allowed to register his semi-automatic handgun within his home. The Supreme Court ruled that the Second Amendment’s right to bear arms could not be restricted by the District of Columbia’s municipal legislation (Heller v D.C., 2008).
References:
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.atf.gov/rules-and-regulations/bump-stocks
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.atf.gov/rules-and-regulations/national-firearms-act
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA v. HELLER. (2008, June 26). Retrieved from https://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/07-290.ZS.html
Kraft, M. E., & Furlong, S. R. (2018). Public policy: Politics, analysis, and alternatives. London: SAGE.
Comments from Customer
Discipline: Engagement civic and citizen driven public policy

The purpose of this exercise is to practice integrative writing skills in scientific writing.

The purpose of this exercise is to practice integrative writing skills in scientific writing.
For this assignment you will submit:
Two individual PDFs of two additional articles among the five you have selected for the final project. Using both articles, write a paragraph of 100 – 150 words in APA style.
Prior to writing the paragraph, ask the following questions:
1) What did you learn in each article about your research question that is new (by new I mean information that are described in articles 2 and 3 about your research question that was not described in the previous article (article 1) you read, summarized and, submitted)?
2) How do these articles (articles 2 and 3) contribute to your understanding of the research question you plan to examine?
Include the following in the paragraph of 100 – 150 words:
1) Include an introductory statement that summarizes what is known about your research question: This statement can begin: “Research shows acculturation is related to or differences in acculturation occur based on ………………. (5 points)
2) Identifying specific information that you obtained from each article (that is the two articles uploaded for this assignment) that informs your understanding of the question. This statement can begin: “ Specifically, Jones et al found that …………………. Also, Smith and colleagues (2020) reported that …………………. (5 points)
3) Conclude the paragraph with an integrative set of statement (2-3 sentences) that highlight what is known about your topic based on all three articles (article 1 submitted with writing assignment 1, articles 2 and 3 being submitted with writing assignment 2. (10 points).
4) Use in-text citations in accordance with APA format 7th edition to refer to the articles. (5 points)

Summarize the plan

Emergency Operations Plan Guidelines
Review the Spring Creek Fire E-Learning Module for background information and links on the disaster and community your EOP will be based on.
Preface – The community that this assignment is based is a real location facing real problems for the next 12 years.
Examine all the data and conduct research on your own
Identify all the hazards
The plan should not exceed 10 pages
Expectation – EOP product will include the following information:
Basic Plan:
Purpose
Scope
Plan Summary
THIRA
Identify the Threats and Hazards of concern that could impact the community
Provide context of the Threats and Hazards identified
Establish capability – Does the community have the capability to manage the Threats and Hazards identified in the short or long term or do they need assistance?
Recommendations to address capabilities
Functional Annexes
Functional Annexes address specific hazards and how they will be managed from a high 30,000-foot level. These are based on the major to minor threats and risks identified in the THRIA
Hazard Specific appendices – these are attached to the functional annex and drive to greater detail how to address the identified hazard. These are not Standard Operating Procedures.
Summary and Recommendations
Summarize the plan
Provide recommendations on how to improve community efforts around the specific hazards – provide realistic options.
learning module https://mycourses.cccs.edu/d2l/le/content/30430/viewContent/4748635/View
Basic Plan Criterion
Purpose
Scope
Plan Summary
Score of Basic Plan Criterion,/ 20
THIRA
Points Possible for Each Criterion
25 points
Criterion Score
Criterion 1
Identify the Threats and Hazards of concern that could impact the community
Score of Criterion 1,/ 25
Criterion 2
Provide context of the Threats and Hazards identified
Score of Criterion 2,/ 25
Criterion 3
Establish capability – Does the community have the capability to manage the Threats and Hazards identified in the short or long term or do they need assistance?
Score of Criterion 3,/ 25
Criterion 4
Recommendations to address capabilities
Score of Criterion 4,/ 25
Functional Annexes
Points Possible for Each Criterion
50 points
Criterion Score
Criterion 1
Functional Annexes address specific hazards and how they will be managed from a high 30,000-foot level. These are based on the major to minor threats and risks identified in the THRIA
Score of Criterion 1,/ 50
Criterion 2
Hazard Specific appendices – these are attached to the functional annex and drive to greater detail how to address the identified hazard. These are not Standard Operating Procedures.
Score of Criterion 2,/ 50
Summary and Recommendations
Points Possible for Each Criterion
10 points
Criterion Score
Criterion 1
Summarize the plan
Score of Criterion 1,/ 10
Criterion 2
Provide recommendations on how to improve community efforts around the specific hazards – provide realistic options.
Score of Criterion 2,/ 10
Formatting
Points Possible
10 points
Criterion Score
Formatting Criterion
APA Format – title page, references, double-spaced, etc.
Score of Formatting Criterion,/ 10

Identify and explain the purpose of the three branches of government.

Congress, the president, the cabinet, advisers, agency bureaucrats, federal and state courts, political parties, interest groups, and the media—all of these groups influence political decisions in our democratic system of government. This results in the creation and implementation of public policies.
Write a page paper in which you do the following:
Define this section public policy.
Title this section Public Policy.
Identify and explain the purpose of the three branches of government. Title this section three branches of Government.
Discuss how each branch of government may influence public policy. Research an example from recent news (such as civil rights, health care, education, or others) and explain how each branch of government could influence the direction of that specific public policy.
Title this section Influence on Public Policy.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
This course requires the use of Strayer Writing Standards. For assistance and information, please refer to the Strayer Writing Standards link in the left-hand menu of your course.
A minimum of
three professional references (Wikipedia is not accepted in this class).
Keep in mind the Master of Public Administration Library Guide for a list of databases focused on Public Administration and for guidance on library research in general.
The specific course learning outcome associated with this assignment is:
Examine the government’s role, function, and decision-making process in a democracy.

How are citizens incorporated into the process, and are there benefits or pitfalls? ch10

Type answers separated.
Could you discuss and describe the differences between capital and operating budgets and provide an example of each at the local, state, or federal level?
Holzer, M. & Schwester, R. (2020). Public Administration: An Introduction 3
rd Edition.
Armonk, NY: M.E.Sharpe.
• ISBN-13: 978-1138579668
• ISBN-10:1138579661
What significant steps need to be taken in designing a performance management system? How are citizens incorporated into the process, and are there benefits or pitfalls? ch10
Holzer, M. & Schwester, R. (2020). Public Administration: An Introduction 3 rd Edition. Armonk, NY: M.E.Sharpe. • ISBN-13: 978-1138579668 • ISBN-10:1138579661

Write a personal essay about the case and explain in your own words, (1) the moral dilemma in the case and (2) what situation can resolve or mitigate the moral dilemma.

Personal Essay
Select one (1) from the two Ethics cases provided in the attachment. Write a personal essay about the case and explain in your own words, (1) the moral dilemma in the case and (2) what situation can resolve or mitigate the moral dilemma.
[Hint: You should reflect upon a case that you have personally encountered or know about. Think about what bothered you so that you can reflect on what could have resolved it. Also, theoretical discussions in class can be very helpful. Since this is your personal essay, there are no rules. Make a convincing argument, as if you are reading your personal essay in front of a public audience]
The essay cannot be less than 2 pages (max 3 pages), double-spaced (12 font size, Times Roman).

Please do not hesitate to reach out if you have questions.

There are 5 different essays as a comprehensive exam. Each asks for different things. I will be adding any book material by tomorrow. I have attached the rubric and all questions. Please do not hesitate to reach out if you have questions. Passing of this exam determines whether I’ll pass the class so plz <3

Do not use material from outside this class syllabus.

Detailed instructions attached. Write an essay in which you answer all of the questions for one of the modules listed above. Present your answers in essay form under topical headings, which are presented in the same order as the questions. Create your topical headings by turning each question into a statement that does not exceed a single line. Example—Question: What is a lie? Heading: Definition of a Lie. You must use all required readings, tables, etc. listed on the syllabus for the week. You may use recommended readings for the week and for previous weeks. Do not use material from outside this class syllabus. I have uploaded any readings that are on my course page.