Explain how the lack of autonomy for aprns impact patients in rural populations?

Explain how the lack of autonomy for APRNs impact patients in rural populations? As a health care professional in an advocacy role, what resources could you utilize to guide you in changing policies that impact APRNS in your state? Include in your discussion the type of stakeholders and collaborative partners you would seek to guide or assist you on this cause.

Program learning outcomes:

  
Based on the theory of attachment, what behaviors would a nurse attempt to stimulate when working with parent to promote health attachment?
Please include 500 words in your initial post with two scholarly articles in APA format within the last 5 years published.
I have attached the topic of this class, and the student learning outcome, please, write your discussion based in one of the student outcomes.
Topics
· Historical Background
· Description of Attachment Theory
· Definition of Key Concepts
· Internal Working Models
· Patterns of Attachment
· Attachment as a Basic Need
· Attachment and Care
· Attachment and Health
· Development and Change
· Application of Attachment Theory: Research
· Application of Theory:
· Practice Further ResearchWeekly Objectives
By the end of this lesson, the learners will:
· Discuss the underpinning of the attachment theory
· Define the key concepts of attachment theory
· Apply the attachment theory to clinical practice and research.
Student Learning Outcomes (Outcome 1-3, & 5)
After completing this course, the learner should be able to:
· Critically analyze the philosophical underpinnings of nursing theories.
· Critique nursing’s conceptual models, grand theories, and mid-range theories.
· Examine the influence that nursing models and theories have upon research and practice.
· Apply nursing theory or theories to nursing research.
Program Learning Outcomes:
· Integrate nursing and related sciences into the delivery of care to clients across diverse healthcare settings
· Relate knowledge of illness and disease management to providing evidence-based care to clients, communities, and vulnerable populations in an evolving healthcare delivery system.
 
 

What should you be concern about?

1.) 
Your patient is a 42-year-old female that arrives in the ED with complaints of fever and not feeling well. She is currently undergoing chemotherapy for bladder cancer. She has an indwelling urinary catheter with scant amount of dark, foul smelling urine. She has a temperature of 102.2F, HR 136, BP 110/50 and RR 28. She is allergic to penicillin and Sulfa.
What type of shock is she experiencing?
The patient is experiencing septic shock. The patient is also exhibiting signs of a urinary tract infection with complications of septicemia.
What interventions do you anticipate the doctor will order?
I would anticipate for the MD to conduct a urine culture, fluid maintenance, IV antibiotics, and a CBC because the patient is on chemotherapy. The MD might also order a vasopressor which constricts the blood vessels and increases the blood pressure to keep the organs from shutting down.
What can you teach this patient about prevention of infection?
I would teach the patient the importance of maintaining proper hygiene while handling the catheter, regular changing of the catheter, wipe front to back after using the restroom, urinate immediately after intercourse, wear cotton underwear, and consuming plenty of water to maintain a healthy urinary tract
The doctor orders Bactrim. What should you be concern about? Why?
The patient is allergic to Sulpha and the doctor has prescribed Bactrim which is a combination drug that consist of Sulpha. I would be concerned because the patient is allergic to the prescribed medication but also needs immediate antibiotic therapy. 
2.) 
What type of shock is she experiencing?
Distributive shock (Septic Shock)
What interventions do you anticipate the doctor will order?
-Infection control: All invasive procedures must be carried out with aseptic technique after careful hand hygiene
-Collaboration: The nurse must collaborate with the other members of the healthcare team to identify the site and source of sepsis and specific organisms involved.
-Management of fever: The nurse must monitor the patient closely for shivering
-Pharmacologic therapy: The nurse should administer prescribed IV fluids and medications including antibiotic agents and vasoactive medications
-Monitor blood levels: The nurse must monitor antibiotic toxicity, BUN, creatinine, WBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet levels, and coagulation studies.
-Assess physiologic status: The nurse should assess the patients hemodynamic status, fluid intake and output, and nutritional status
What can you teach this patient about prevention of infection?
-Prevent shock episodes: The nurse should instruct the patient and the family strategies to prevent shock episodes through identifying the factors implicated in the initial episodes.
-Instructions on assessment: The patient and the family should be taught about assessments needed to identify the complications that may occur after discharge.
-Treatment modalities: The nurse must teach the patient and the family about treatment modalities such as emergency administration of medications, IV therapy, parenteral or enteral nutrition, skin care, exercise, and ambulation.
The doctor orders Bactrim. What should you be concern about? Why?
Bactrim belongs to a drug class called sulfonamides. I would be concerned because the patient has an allergy to this drug class.

Why is there a mismatch between healthcare spending and outcomes in the united states?

Letters to the editor can be a platform for experts in their fields to share perspectives on debated issues of the day. As a healthcare professional, you are uniquely positioned to compare the United States to other health systems around the globe. Despite the high expenditures in the United States, outcomes are still poor compared to other nations. Why is there a mismatch between healthcare spending and outcomes in the United States? How does the United States compare to other developed and developing countries?
Prompt
You have been invited to provide a letter to the editor of a scholarly health journal. The editor has requested that you identify the financial impacts of health and non-health policies in developed and developing countries. Specifically, how do these policies impact cost expenditures in the United States? Be sure to include specific points evaluating healthcare infrastructure, political barriers, and social inequities impacting health outcomes in developed and developing societies.
Note that you should cite at least three scholarly sources from your investigation. The evidence should not be older than five years. To access the Shapiro Library Guide: Nursing—Graduate, go to the Start Here section of the course.
Specifically, you must address the following rubric criteria:
Healthcare Costs: Explain the causes of high healthcare spending in the United States compared to other developed and developing countries.

Structural Causes: Describe the healthcare infrastructure of the United States and compare it to those of other countries. In what ways do these structural components drive up healthcare spending in the United States?
Political Causes: Analyze health and non-health policies in the United States and compare them to those of other countries. In what ways do these political factors drive up healthcare spending in the United States?

Healthcare Outcomes: Explain the results of high healthcare spending in the United States compared to other developed and developing countries.

Effectiveness: Evaluate the healthcare outcomes of the United States considering its spending. To what extent does the United States benefit from its high healthcare spending compared to other nations?
Inequities: Evaluate the inequities generated by healthcare costs in the United States as compared to other countries. To what extent do healthcare outcomes differ amongst various groups in the United States?

However, in the world today, this is unusual (kavati et al., 2022).

Reply to this discussion about surrogate role in nursing with at least 250 words, 2 scholarly references within the last 5 years published, in APA format.
The renowned nurse theorist Hildegard Peplau developed a theory of interpersonal interactions in nursing in 1952. According to her, the main aim of establishing a good relationship between the nurse and the client is to promote the health outcomes of the patients. The nurse has specific roles in healthcare, including teacher, stranger, counselor, leader, surrogate, and resource person. The technical expert was later included as the seventh role (Forchuk, 2021). The surrogate role, however, defined by Peplau, is different from the one experienced today. According to Peplau, in the surrogate role, the nurse steps in for another person or the patient. The patient will project their feelings onto the nurse through this role-playing. The nurse responds to this reaction and helps clients see the similarities and differences between themselves and others (Forchuk, 2021).
The surrogate role frequently mentioned in the literature pertains to carrying pregnancy on another woman’s behalf. A carrier’s egg and donor sperm were formerly used in traditional surrogacy, making her genetically connected to the kid. However, in the world today, this is unusual (Kavati et al., 2022). Legal ramifications come into play when a carrier is genetically connected to the embryo. The fear of connection also enters the picture. Families now choose gestational carriers (Kavati et al., 2022). According to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, the eggs used to create the embryos using a GC do not originate from the carrier. This procedure necessitates in vitro fertilization because the eggs will be removed from one woman and placed in another. A woman who conceives, bears, and gives birth to a child on behalf of another person or couple is known as a surrogate and a gestational carrier. After the birth, the surrogate consents to give the kid to that individual or couple. A surrogate cannot often be the biological mother of the child she carries (Kavati et al., 2022). This means that the surrogacy process cannot use her egg. The egg and sperm needed to create an embryo are given by the prospective child’s mother and father or by a donor. The surrogate who carries the pregnancy and delivers the child receives this embryo. The two aspects of the surrogate role described in current literature and Peplau’s concept do not relate strongly (Kavati et al., 2022). Therefore, it is enough to say that the current surrogate role described in the literature does not reflect current practice, especially in nursing.
References
Forchuk, C. (2021). Overview of Peplau’s Theory. In From Therapeutic Relationships to Transitional Care (pp. 3–15). Routledge. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9781003000853-21/overview-peplau-theory-cheryl-forchuk
Kavati, A. B., & Ramirez, F. (2022). Nursing commentary to “Surrogate decision-making in crisis .”Journal of Medical Ethics, 48(5), 293–294. https://jme.bmj.com/content/48/5/293.abstract

Explain the strengths and weaknesses of each policy.

To Prepare:
Review the World Health Organization’s (WHO) global health agenda and select one global health issue to focus on for this Assignment.
Select at least one additional country to compare to the U.S. for this Assignment.
Reflect on how the global health issue you selected is approached in the U.S. and in the additional country you selected.
Review and download the Global Health Comparison Matrix provided in the Resources.
The Assignment: (1- to 2-page Global Health Comparison Matrix; 1-page Plan for Social Change)
Part 1: Global Health Comparison Matrix
Focusing on the country you selected and the U.S., complete the Global Health Comparison Matrix. Be sure to address the following:
Consider the U.S. national/federal health policies that have been adapted for the global health issue you selected from the WHO global health agenda. Compare these policies to the additional country you selected for study.
Explain the strengths and weaknesses of each policy.
Explain how the social determinants of health may impact the global health issue you selected. Be specific and provide examples.
Using the WHO’s Organization’s global health agenda as well as the results of your own research, analyze how each country’s government addresses cost, quality, and access to the global health issue selected.
Explain how the health policy you selected might impact the health of the global population. Be specific and provide examples.
Explain how the health policy you selected might impact the role of the nurse in each country.
Explain how global health issues impact local healthcare organizations and policies in both countries. Be specific and provide examples.
Part 2: A Plan for Social Change
Reflect on the global health policy comparison and analysis you conducted in Part 1 of the Assignment and the impact that global health issues may have on the world, the U.S., your community, as well as your practice as a nurse leader.
In a 1-page response, create a plan for social change that incorporates a global perspective or lens into your local practice and role as a nurse leader.
Explain how you would advocate for the incorporation of a global perspective or lens into your local practice and role as a nurse leader.
Explain how the incorporation of a global perspective or lens might impact your local practice and role as a nurse leader.
Explain how the incorporation of a global perspective or lens into your local practice as a nurse leader represents and contributes to social change. Be specific and provide examples

Write a 2- to 3-paragraph justification statement identifying your reasons for choosing your msn specialization.

Review the scope and standards of practice or competencies related to your chosen specialty in the resources for this module.
Review the MSN specializations offered at Walden by viewing the module resource, Walden University. (n.d.). Master of Science in Nursing (MSN).
Examine professional organizations related to the specialization you have chosen and identify at least one to focus on for this Assignment.
Reflect on the thoughts you shared in the Discussion forum regarding your choice of a specialty, any challenges you have encountered in making this choice, and any feedback you have received from colleagues in the Discussion.
The Assignment:
Complete the following items and incorporate them into the final version of your Academic Success and Professional Development Plan.
With the resources specific to the MSN specialization and the, Walden University. (n.d.). Master of Science in Nursing (MSN), shared in this module, write a paragraph or make a Nursing Specialty Comparison table, comparing at least two nursing specialties that include your selected specialization and second-preferred specialization.
Write a 2- to 3-paragraph justification statement identifying your reasons for choosing your MSN specialization. Incorporate feedback you received from colleagues in this Module’s Discussion forum.
Identify the professional organization related to your chosen specialization for this Assignment, and explain how you can become an active member of this organization.
Note: Your final version of the Academic Success and Professional Development Plan should include all components as presented the Academic Success and Professional Development Plan template.

Identify the professional organization related to your chosen specialization for this assignment, and explain how you can become an active member of this organization.

Review the scope and standards of practice or competencies related to your chosen specialty in the resources for this module.
Review the MSN specializations offered at Walden by viewing the module resource, Walden University. (n.d.). Master of Science in Nursing (MSN).
Examine professional organizations related to the specialization you have chosen and identify at least one to focus on for this Assignment.
Reflect on the thoughts you shared in the Discussion forum regarding your choice of a specialty, any challenges you have encountered in making this choice, and any feedback you have received from colleagues in the Discussion.
The Assignment:
Complete the following items and incorporate them into the final version of your Academic Success and Professional Development Plan.
With the resources specific to the MSN specialization and the, Walden University. (n.d.). Master of Science in Nursing (MSN), shared in this module, write a paragraph or make a Nursing Specialty Comparison table, comparing at least two nursing specialties that include your selected specialization and second-preferred specialization.
Write a 2- to 3-paragraph justification statement identifying your reasons for choosing your MSN specialization. Incorporate feedback you received from colleagues in this Module’s Discussion forum.
Identify the professional organization related to your chosen specialization for this Assignment, and explain how you can become an active member of this organization.
Note: Your final version of the Academic Success and Professional Development Plan should include all components as presented the Academic Success and Professional Development Plan template.

Discuss what is evidence based practice (one paragraph)

 
Parts 1, 2 and 3 have the same questions. However, you must answer with references and different writing, always addressing them objectively, as if you were different students. Similar responses in wording or references will not be accepted.
APA format
1) Minimum 7 pages  (No word count per page)- Follow the 3 x 3 rule: minimum of three paragraphs per page
You must strictly comply with the number of paragraphs requested per page.  
The number of words in each paragraph should be similar
         Part 1: minimum 1 page (20 hours)
         Part 2: minimum 1 page (20 hours)
         Part 3: minimum 1 page (20 hours)
         Part 4: minimum 4 pages (24 hours)
Submit 1 document per part
2)¨******APA norms
        The number of words in each paragraph should be similar
        Must be written in the 3 person
         All paragraphs must be narrative and cited in the text- each paragraph
         The writing must be coherent, using connectors or conjunctive to extend, add information, or contrast information. 
         Bulleted responses are not accepted
         Don’t write in the first person 
         Do not use subtitles or titles      
         Don’t copy and paste the questions.
         Answer the question objectively, do not make introductions to your answers, answer it when you start the paragraph
Submit 1 document per part
3)****************************** It will be verified by Turnitin (Identify the percentage of exact match of writing with any other resource on the internet and academic sources, including universities and data banks) 
********************************It will be verified by SafeAssign (Identify the percentage of similarity of writing with any other resource on the internet and academic sources, including universities and data banks)
4) Minimum 3 references (APA format) per part not older than 5 years  (Journals, books) (No websites)
All references must be consistent with the topic-purpose-focus of the parts. Different references are not allowed 
5) Identify your answer with the numbers, according to the question. Start your answer on the same line, not the next
 Example:
Q 1. Nursing is XXXXX
Q 2. Health is XXXX
Q3. Research is…………………………………………………. (a) The relationship between……… (b) EBI has to
6) You must name the files according to the part you are answering: 
Example:
Part 1.doc 
Part 2.doc
__________________________________________________________________________________
Parts 1, 2 and 3 have the same questions. However, you must answer with references and different writing, always addressing them objectively, as if you were different students. Similar responses in wording or references will not be accepted.
The number of words in each paragraph should be similar
Part 1: Capstone
PICOT question:  Is it possible that the rate of errors due to incompatibility of intravenous medications is reduced by implementing a training program for nurses for 8 weeks, compared to the rate of errors before training? 
1. Discuss what is Evidence Based Practice (One paragraph)
2. What have you discovered thus far with your Review of Literature in regards to your PICOT? (Two paragraphs: One paragraph for “a” an “b”; One paragraph for “c” an “d” )
a. Data about errors due to incompatibility of intravenous medications
b. Side effects of IV drug incompatibility 
c. Impacts on the patient´s health
d. Cost of health system
The number of words in each paragraph should be similar
Part 2: Capstone
PICOT question:  Can the implementation of a 2-month program on sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents aged 14 to 17 years improve their knowledge about the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases compared to their knowledge before the program’s implementation? 
1. Discuss what is Evidence Based Practice (One paragraph)
2. What have you discovered thus far with your Review of Literature in regards to your PICOT? (Two paragraphs: One paragraph for “a” an “b”; One paragraph for “c” an “d” )
a. Data about sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents aged 14 to 17 years
b. Misbeliefs about STDs in adolescents
c. Gaps in sexual education in school
d. Gaps in sexual education in home
The number of words in each paragraph should be similar
Part 3: Capstone
PICOT question:  Can the implementation of a 2-month program on sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents aged 14 to 17 years improve their knowledge about the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases compared to their knowledge before the program’s implementation? 
1. Discuss what is Evidence Based Practice (One paragraph)
2. What have you discovered thus far with your Review of Literature in regards to your PICOT? (Two paragraphs: One paragraph for “a” an “b”; One paragraph for “c” an “d” )
a. Data about burnout in nurses
b. Mental effect of burnout in nurses
c. Gaps in burnout prevention in health institutions
d. Turnover impact in health system cost
 
Parts 1, 2 and 3 have the same questions. However, you must answer with references and different writing, always addressing them objectively, as if you were different students. Similar responses in wording or references will not be accepted.
APA format
1) Minimum 3 pages  (No word count per page)- Follow the 3 x 3 rule: minimum of three paragraphs per page
You must strictly comply with the number of paragraphs requested per page.  
The number of words in each paragraph should be similar
         Part 1: minimum 1 page
         Part 2: minimum 1 page
         Part 3: minimum 1 page
Submit 1 document per part
2)¨******APA norms
        The number of words in each paragraph should be similar
        Must be written in the 3 person
         All paragraphs must be narrative and cited in the text- each paragraph
         The writing must be coherent, using connectors or conjunctive to extend, add information, or contrast information. 
         Bulleted responses are not accepted
         Don’t write in the first person 
         Do not use subtitles or titles      
         Don’t copy and paste the questions.
         Answer the question objectively, do not make introductions to your answers, answer it when you start the paragraph
Submit 1 document per part
3)****************************** It will be verified by Turnitin (Identify the percentage of exact match of writing with any other resource on the internet and academic sources, including universities and data banks) 
********************************It will be verified by SafeAssign (Identify the percentage of similarity of writing with any other resource on the internet and academic sources, including universities and data banks)
4) Minimum 3 references (APA format) per part not older than 5 years  (Journals, books) (No websites)
All references must be consistent with the topic-purpose-focus of the parts. Different references are not allowed 
5) Identify your answer with the numbers, according to the question. Start your answer on the same line, not the next
 Example:
Q 1. Nursing is XXXXX
Q 2. Health is XXXX
Q3. Research is…………………………………………………. (a) The relationship between……… (b) EBI has to
6) You must name the files according to the part you are answering: 
Example:
Part 1.doc 
Part 2.doc
__________________________________________________________________________________
Parts 1, 2 and 3 have the same questions. However, you must answer with references and different writing, always addressing them objectively, as if you were different students. Similar responses in wording or references will not be accepted.
The number of words in each paragraph should be similar
Part 1: Capstone
PICOT question:  Is it possible that the rate of errors due to incompatibility of intravenous medications is reduced by implementing a training program for nurses for 8 weeks, compared to the rate of errors before training? 
1. Discuss what is Evidence Based Practice (One paragraph)
2. What have you discovered thus far with your Review of Literature in regards to your PICOT? (Two paragraphs: One paragraph for “a” an “b”; One paragraph for “c” an “d” )
a. Data about errors due to incompatibility of intravenous medications
b. Side effects of IV drug incompatibility 
c. Impacts on the patient´s health
d. Cost of health system
The number of words in each paragraph should be similar
Part 2: Capstone
PICOT question:  Can the implementation of a 2-month program on sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents aged 14 to 17 years improve their knowledge about the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases compared to their knowledge before the program’s implementation? 
1. Discuss what is Evidence Based Practice (One paragraph)
2. What have you discovered thus far with your Review of Literature in regards to your PICOT? (Two paragraphs: One paragraph for “a” an “b”; One paragraph for “c” an “d” )
a. Data about sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents aged 14 to 17 years
b. Misbeliefs about STDs in adolescents
c. Gaps in sexual education in school
d. Gaps in sexual education in home
The number of words in each paragraph should be similar
Part 3: Capstone
PICOT question:  Can the implementation of a 2-month program on sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents aged 14 to 17 years improve their knowledge about the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases compared to their knowledge before the program’s implementation? 
1. Discuss what is Evidence Based Practice (One paragraph)
2. What have you discovered thus far with your Review of Literature in regards to your PICOT? (Two paragraphs: One paragraph for “a” an “b”; One paragraph for “c” an “d” )
a. Data about burnout in nurses
b. Mental effect of burnout in nurses
c. Gaps in burnout prevention in health institutions
d. Turnover impact in health system cost
Part 4: Community Nursing
Consider yourself a community health nurse. 
 
Lorrie is 16 years old and 75 pounds overweight. Her father is a school bus driver who was recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Her mother works for a sewing company. She is overweight with high LDL levels. She is taking two antihypertensive medications at present time. At a recent health science fair at Lorrie’s school, a student-led screening clinic documented Lorrie’s blood pressure at 140/92 mm Hg. The family immigrated from Honduras 5 years ago and they do not have health insurance. 
During health science fair, the following data was recorded: 55% of the students with BMI 25.0 to <30 and 15% of the students with BMI 30.0 or higher. 1. Introduction (One paragraph) 2. Is obesity a major health issue in the United States? (One paragraph) 3. According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NCHS, CDC; BRFSS, 2012):(One paragraph) a. How is obesity defined? 4. What is your role as a community nurse? (Write in the first person) (One paragraph) 5. What risk factors should be explored for Lorrie’s family for cardiovascular disease?(One paragraph)  6. Describe the three may social determinants of health in this case and (One paragraph) a. Incorporate the concepts of health promotion and risk reduction. 7. Selec and apply an of the behavioral change models to address health promotion and risk reduction in this case and explain it(One paragraph) a. Explain why you selected these model  8. Public health nurses use statistics to demonstrate the need for obesity program development and community interventions. According to the most recent CDC data:(One paragraph) a. What data were identified about obesity in children and adults?  9. Explain why is necessary for planning a community nursing intervention (Write in the first person) (One paragraph) a. How will you do that?  b. Will you work alone or in collaboration/teamwork?  c. Will you look for funding? How?  10. How would you evaluate the community-level intervention(s)? (One paragraph) 11. Will you use social marketing to change health behaviors or beliefs, social or cultural norms, or community standards to improve health or benefit society?  a.Which resources will you use? (One paragraph) 12. Briefly mention 3 research studies that support the community-level intervention in this case  (One paragraph)