However, i want you to focus on the specific study i gave you above.

Briefly discuss six to eight strengths / weaknesses for the study provided. These should relate to the study methodology and / or the wider applicability of the study. You should include a minimum of three and a maximum of four strengths, and correspondingly a minimum of three and a maximum of four weaknesses.
This is the study you will assess is: “Biomedical detection dogs for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 infections from axillary sweat and breath samples”
Use bullet-points to demarcate each point. For each point you make, briefly explain why it is a strength or weakness of the study.
You should aim for around 250 – 300 words in total. Include the full reference of the paper, but you do not need to describe the study. The title and reference are not included in the word count.
What is expected:
Excellent answer which includes 6-8 appropriate strengths / weaknesses with explanations that show good understanding and critical insight to research methodologies. Implications are reasoned and expressed clearly.
I will give you 2 example pieces that was done on other studies. However, I want you to focus on the specific study I gave you above. However, you can look at the example ones to see how they are answered.
I will also provide you the template I would like you to use.
All of this is repeated in the Instructions document.


Choose ONE CHARACTERISTIC from the list below to formulate a hypothesis and to make predictions. The
characteristic you select is one that you believe will affect an individual’s response to exercise. You will also
need to give a rationale for your hypothesis, based on your prior knowledge or observations.
You may need to do some preliminary research and reading to help you choose a CHARACTERISTIC.
These are the characteristics that will be recorded in the class data set:
• Age
• Height
• Weight
• Biological Sex
• Smoking habits
• Fitness level
• Amount of exercise per week
• Intensity when exercising
• Typical hours of sleep
• Stage of menstrual cycle (if applicable)
Design your hypothesis in such a way that will allow you to test the effect of ONE experimental variable.
Some ideas for experimental variables include: the effect of age OR the effect of fitness level OR the effect of
smoking, etc.
1. Using the class data set that will be posted on Blackboard in the folder titled “Data Submission and
Class Data Set”, you need to select participants based on your hypothesis and according to their
characteristics. There are many ways you can analyze the data, but you are asked to use the following
procedure to make your analysis simple. This will be based on dividing your chosen characteristic into
two groups. You will need to select 5 participants in each of your two groups (10 in total). If you
exercised, you may include your own data as one of the 10. If you didn’t exercise, you must choose all
10 from the posted table.
2. Keeping your hypothesis in mind, look at the characteristics that have been posted and determine how
you would like to group the participants into two groups. If you are comparing females and males, for
example, you would select 5 males and 5 females. For characteristics with more than two categories,
or with a range of measurements, it becomes more complicated. For some, like fitness level, you can
decide on which two groups to use, such as comparing below average to above average (leaving out
the average and elite groupings—or any other combination). Or, for example, if you hypothesized that
age would have an effect on response and recovery to exercise, you could decide to group participants
into two groups: 1) less than or equal to 20 years and 2) greater than or equal to 25 years (or of course
you can choose different ranges). Think about choosing two groups that are significantly different. For
example, do not choose to compare individuals who are 160 cm tall with those who are 164 cm tall, as
this is a fairly small difference.
3. You will need to choose 5 participants for each group (for example, 5 males and 5 females, OR 5
smokers and 5 non-smokers). Other than your chosen characteristic, try to keep as many of the other
characteristics the same as possible. For example, if you are comparing current smokers to participants
who never smoked, you could choose to analyze all female participants for each group, all of average
fitness level and all within a certain height and weight range. They would only differ in that one group
smokes and the other does not smoke. It will likely not be possible to keep all other characteristics the
same, and that is acceptable for this project. You can address this and what effect it might have, in the
discussion of your report.
4. When you select your 5 participants for each group, try not to do this in a way that would create a
bias. For example, do not look at the heart rates to see which ones are more likely to fit your
5. Once you have your 5 participants in each group, you will need to calculate the means and standard
deviations for your two groups for the three times that were measured: at rest, right after exercise
and after 5 minutes of recovery. You may do this any way you would like but an Excel spreadsheet can
be helpful. Use Workshop #1 to assist you, particularly if you are not familiar with using Excel to make
these calculations. You will need to do these types of calculations for both heart rate and respiration
rate each at rest, response, and recovery.
6. You will need to present your averages and standard deviations in two graphs, one for the heart rate
and one for the respiration rate data. Workshop #1 will assist you with this if you are not familiar with
how to create graphs in Excel.
7. Finally you will need to carry out a simple statistical analysis (a t-test) on your data to determine
whether there are any differences between the two groups you have chosen for your selected criteria.
Workshop #1 will assist you with these statistical calculations using Excel.
8. Once you have created your graphs and carried out your analysis, you should be able to conclude
whether the data support your hypothesis or not and you will be able to complete your final lab
1. Title page (2/100)
Title must be descriiptive and reflective of the experiment. For example, “Exercise Physiology Project”
is not an acceptable title. It could be “The effect of age on response and recovery after exercise”, or it
could even include a little more specific detail. You must also include your name, student number,
course number, date, and word count of the body of your report (i.e., not title page, references, etc.)
in the upper left corner (same as we have done in the other course assignments this term).
Your title should be 12 words or less.
2. Introduction (20/100)
• Identify the topic (in your case the topic is HOMEOSTASIS; one sentence).
• Provide background information relevant to the subject. You must include at least three literature
references including your textbook (or another general source) and one primary (reporting original
data) and one secondary (reviewing others’ research) journal articles. The background could
include information about the interactions of organisms with their environment, the important
role of homeostasis in mammals, changes triggered by stress that maintain homeostasis, the
specific characteristics that influence response and recovery, etc. The background should focus on
exercise as the “stress”, and factors that may influence the response to this stress (e.g., previous
fitness level, smoking, BMI). The rationale for your purpose and hypothesis should be clear.
However, avoid mentioning the mechanisms that are used to maintain homeostasis after exercise
as these will form part of your discussion.
• Establish why the study is important (one sentence). Why is important to know how organisms
respond to stress?
• Give a brief summary of the scope and purpose of your study (explain the stress used (exercise),
the parameters measured (pulse and breathing rate), and the characteristic you are comparing, in
a way that demonstrates the overall purpose for the lab; 2-3 sentences).
• End with a hypothesis statement and one or two predictions (2-3 sentences)
3. Methods (10/100)
• Remember that methods must be repeatable, i.e., meaning that anyone who wishes to replicate
your experiment should be able to do so easily. The descriiption should be brief and clearly
expressed and should be written in sentences and in past tense. You should describe what the
participants did, rather than write out a set of instructions.
• You should include the fact that participants used a variety of methods to exercise, methods of
measurement of pulse and breathing, and the timing of the exercise and measurements.
• You should describe how you selected the two groups you analyzed (e.g., From the class data set, I
selected five participants who sleep an average of 8 or more hours per night and five participants
who sleep an average of 6 or fewer hours per night).
• Explain which other characteristics you kept constant (e.g., all selected participants were males
between the ages of 20 and 22).
• State which statistical test you used to analyze the data — this will be a t-test.
• The use of “I” will be permitted in this report when appropriate (e.g., I selected 10 participants in
total…). You can also choose to use passive voice throughout (e.g., Ten participants were chosen
from the class data set…).
4. Results (20/100)
• Present the data in graph form, using two graphs, one for heart rate and one for respiratory rate.
• Label the graphs as Figure 1 and Figure 2. Put the Figure number and a caption for the figure
BELOW the graph. (e.g., Figure 1: A comparison of heart rate in smokers compared to non-smokers
at rest, immediately following five minutes of exercise and after five minutes of recovery).
• Provide a written text in the Results section that will explain the most important or key features
seen in each Figure that you wish to emphasize to the reader. Make sure that you refer to the
figures in your text. For example: Figure 1 shows that resting heart rates in participants who are
non-smokers is significantly lower/higher than…). Along with identifying major trends, include
information that will quantify the changes you observed, and/or highlight particular points of
interest in the data. Also include any relevant observations that were made during the
experiments (e.g., sweating, flushing, etc.). As you may notice, your Result section only includes
figures that have the means and standard deviations. However, as part of the results, you must
include an Appendix that includes the raw data (see below).
5. Discussion (30/100)
The Discussion explains why you might have observed what you did in your Results. Here are some
things to consider including in your discussion. You must cite references for any information you use
that is not general knowledge. General knowledge will include most of what we have learned in this
course, so you do not need to cite the lecture notes. However, if in doubt, cite our textbook or another
one. You must use a minimum of three references, two of which must be journal articles (at least one
must be a primary source).
The following are some questions you might consider in writing your Discussion:
• What do the data suggest about the effects of your chosen characteristic on response and
recovery after exercise? On resting measurements?
• What do your results indicate about the body’s response to exercise? For example, you could
o What triggers the dramatic change in pulse and breathing with the stress of exercise?
o Why do pulse and respiratory rate remain elevated after exercise stops?
o How did exercise influence body temperatures?
o What is the function of sweating? Of blanching or flushing of the skin?
o How do these responses of the body to exercise relate to the maintenance of internal
o How are these responses shut down once the stress of exercise is removed?
• You can also include in your discussion a list of other parameters (e.g., blood pressure) that
have not been included in your experiment but could be of interest to expand your study.
• Describe any limitations to this study or things that make your conclusions less strong than
they could be.
• Describe what features you were not able to keep constant and what influence this might have
on the results.
• Conclude with a brief statement that refers back to your hypothesis and whether or not it was
supported. Please recall that you cannot “prove” that your hypothesis is “correct”. What you
can do is say whether or not the data you analyzed support your hypothesis. So you could say:
“The result of this experiment support/do not support my hypothesis that …”
6. References (10/100)
Your textbook is a good resource for information about exercise physiology and related topics (heart
rhythm, breathing rhythms, blood pressure, muscle metabolism, temperature regulation, etc.). You
should also access other appropriate textbooks and journal articles (you should aim for at least 5
references including your textbook and 4 journal articles published since the year 2010. At least two
of the journal references should be a primary source (i.e., a report of original research, not a
textbook, website, review, etc.). You will use APA7 format to cite your sources.
7. Appendix (3/100)
You should include a table of the raw data that you used in your analysis, which includes only the ten
participants that you chose. You should include the Subject Numbers you used—these will be listed in
the class set of data. If you exercised, you do not need to find your own subject number. Be sure to
give your table a number and title. The title for a Table goes at the top.
8. Overall presentation (5/100)
This mark will be for spelling, grammar, format and organization.
Please use spell- and grammar- checkers that are available in your word-processing program!
Remember that in Biology lab reports, you must not use direct quotations. You must reword any
material you are using in your own words.

What is the usual time course for recovery?

Select a disease that affects humans or animals whose causative agent is a bacterium, virus, fungus, protozoa, or other microorganism.
Create and deliver a presentation on your chosen disease in which you report on each of the following in detail:
Causative Agent: Describe and classify the microbe involved. If known, explain how the microbe causes/transmits the disease or interferes with normal body function. Also, describe the vector and/or life cycle for the microbe (if applicable).
Population(s) affected: What population(s) is/are at highest risk of contracting the disease? Are there any groups of people who should be tested? Please include statistical/geographical data and trends (from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, or other source [http://www.cdc.govLinks to an external site., http://www.who.intLinks to an external site., etc.]).
Course of Disease: What are the usual signs/symptoms of someone with the disease? How is the disease diagnosed? What is the usual time course for recovery? Are there complications and/or long-term effects?
Interventions: Describe possible treatments and/or medical interventions. Is there a vaccine available? How can the disease be best prevented or kept under control?

Select a publication or a newspaper article on a pathogen, apply knowledge learned in your course, and write a paper.

Select a publication or a newspaper article on a pathogen, apply knowledge learned in your course, and write a paper.
The goal for this project is:
• to make connections between concepts learned in the course and what is observed in a health care setting
• to understand real-life applications of Microbiology
For this assignment, you will identify a pathogen in a newspaper article or publication of your choice, apply principles learned in your course and research the pathogen for its connection to nursing/health care. You must get approval for your chosen article and pathogen. You will then write a paper on their chosen pathogen/topic. Use the template hyperlinked above when writing your paper.
The pathogen can be a bacteria, fungus, protozoa, or virus. In addition to the article, information to include in the paper should include, morphology, gram stain characteristics, virulence factors, susceptibility to antibiotics, host cells, nutritional needs, growth conditions, mechanisms used to evade the immune system and invasion into the host(s), interactions with the hosts and diseases caused and affected body systems. Additionally, students should explain symptoms when the pathogen infects a host, as well as a diagnosis and the therapeutic intervention needed after infection. You may also add information on statistics related to infection (epidemiology) and any new research findings related to the pathogen.
The pathogen that I was assigned was bacterial meningitis
Writing requirements
Use template that is provided
Length: 4 pages (not including title page or references page)
1-inch margin
Double spaced
12-point Times New Roman font
Title page
References page (minimum of 3 scholarly sources)

Be sure to cite any and all sources correctly so that my academic integrity is not called into question.

This paper should be 8-10 pages in length (double-spaced) and written in APA format. You should use at least 10 outside academic resources to support your ideas and opinions. Be sure to cite any and all sources correctly so that my academic integrity is not called into question.

Research paper

General Biology I
Research Paper
The War on Science
Many reasonable people are now doubting science. Numerous scientific findings are questioned by the
average citizen. I want you to research a particular biology subject and investigate what leads to the
public doubt of science in your specific subject. You must include both the evidence for proven scientific
facts as well as the misinformation used to discredit these facts.
If you are unsure if your topic qualifies as a biology subject, I will be happy to confirm. Just email me!
Paper Requirements
1. You must have a minimum of 10 sources. Of the 10, a minimum of 5 must be primary sources from
peer-reviewed scientific journals. Check out PubMed for articles.
2. Your paper should argue the prevalence of a science in doubt topic. Your argument must include
evidence from both sides.
3. Your paper must be between 5-6 pages in length (not including a title page and a citation page) with
normal margins (1 inch) and font (New Times Roman and 12 point).
4. You must use proper APA citation style for both works cited page and in-text citations. Check out
Purdue Owl for help
Refer to the rubric.

Do not

The contents of the paper should have approximately 6 pages minimum and can be up to 10 pages in
length. The essential objective of this exercise should have quality rather than quantity. This means, you
should follow given guidelines and carefully craft only relevant details. The references should be no more
than 5 years old, with rare exception. You should include a bare minimum of 5 references from professional
journals or books. If you use Internet references, make sure you use appropriate citations. Web search hits
(such as Google and Yahoo, College/University Professor`s pages) cannot be copied as references. Do not
provide the links for the references. Cite the references.
PAGE 1 – Taxonomy
PAGE 2 – main characteristics
PAGE 3 – pathogenicity
PAGE 4 – epidemiology
PAGE 5 – diseases and treatments
PAGE 6 – reference list

Provide an example of a specific disease that affected the human population to support your argument.

The human population is constantly increasing. This leads to major stresses being placed on the planet for resources, space, and energy. For this discussion, explain the following:
1. What do scientists estimate the carrying capacity of humans to be for the planet? Explain what you think will happen if the human population exceeds this amount and why.
2. With the ever increasing concern about the population growth, how do you see specific threats of disease effecting humans? Would this vary across different countries and continents? Provide an example of a specific disease that affected the human population to support your argument.
After you make your initial post, respond to at least two of your classmates.

What type of organism is this?

Theses questions every easy. All information in the PDF.
BLAST Website:…
Lab 23: Bioinformatics
New techniques in DNA sequencing have lead to massive amounts of sequence data. These data have led scientists create new tools and disciplines, including bioinformatics. Bioinformatics attempts to use sequence data to help answer questions about biology.
What is sequence data?
Sequence data is the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule. For example, the sequence below is DNA sequence data. Note that only the bases are listed, since the sugar and phosphates are the same for every nucleotide.
Below is protein sequence data. The single letters stand for individual amino acids. Note that the side chains are the only parts listed.
Where is the sequence data?
Sequences are stored in a computer database that can be accessed via the internet. The largest public database of sequences is in the US, and is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, which is part of the National Institute for Health. The sequences are contained in a database called GenBank, and can be searched by a program called Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). Searching for sequences is called “blasting” like searching the internet is called “googling,” However, it is important to remember there are other alignment programs and databases, just like there are other search engines.
What does the program return after a search?
When a person inputs sequence into the search program, the program uses an algorithm to look in the database for the best matches to the submitted sequence. The matches are aligned with the submitted sequence. This means the sequence that was put into the search is lined up with the sequence found in the database. Information about the matches is also displayed. For our exercise today, there is only one important piece of information you need from the aligned sequence, the identity of the organism that contains the sequence. The identity of an organism is its Latin name that is composed of its genus and specific names. For example, you are a specimen of Homo sapiens. Your genus is Homo and your specific epithet is sapiens. Let’s say BLAST returns aligned sequences, and the top hit is “Bacillus subtilis KCTC 1028, complete genome.”
1. What is the Latin name of this organism?
2. What type of organism is this? Use the Latin name to search the internet if you do not know.
What is a sequence alignment?
Below is an example of a sequence alignment. The sequence on top is marked “Query” as it is the sequence that was submitted to BLAST while “Sbjct” is the sequence that BLAST found in the database and aligned it with the submitted sequence. Note the gaps where the nucleotides do not match.
What can you do with sequence data?
Sequence data can be used to investigate evolutionary relationships. Sequences from closely related species should more similar than those from distantly related species. When sequence is submitted to BLAST, the algorithm ranks the hits by putting more similar sequences at the top. As you scroll down the list of hits, you move to sequences from more distantly related organisms
Sequence data can be used to investigate functional relationships. Let’s say a researcher is studying a particular protein, but doesn’t know what it does. Using the sequence of their gene, they can search databases (DNA or protein) for similar sequences in other organisms. If they find a protein with a very similar sequence (or similar regions) whose function is known, they can make a guess that their protein of interest functions the same way. This guess is often a good place to start, but all guesses must be confirmed by research in a laboratory.
Activity – Solve the Murder
Equipment: Internet
There has been a terrible murder at the Zoo. A male lion was found dead, battered, and covered in blood. You are working in a crime lab and recieve two blood samples from the scene of the crime.
You isolate the DNA and determine the nucleotide sequences from both samples. The sequences are listed below. Use nucleotide BLAST to determine which organisms the blood came from. Use the Latin names to search the internet for the common names of these organisms.
3. Who do you think is the murderer?
Activity – Sequence Safari
Equipment: Internets, 1 4-sided die, 1 20-sided die
Now we are going randomly create a piece of DNA and pretend that it is our sequence of interest. Use the 4 sided die to randomly generate a sequence of 20 nucleotides by rolling the die and writing the 1 letter code. Use the table to the right. For example, if you roll a one, you write down an A.
4. Write the sequence of 20 nucleotides in the space below.
Now use nucleotide BLAST on your sequence. Find the name of the organism with the highest score. It will be in Latin (genus and species).
5. Write the genus and species name of your organism
6. What type of organism is this? Use the Latin name to search the internet if you do not know.
Next we will randomly generate a protein using a 20-sided die and the table below. Roll 20, 20-sided dice to generate a peptide of 20 amino acids.
7. Write the sequence of 20 amino acids in the space below.
Now use protein BLAST on your sequence. Find the name of the organism with the highest score.
8. Write the genus and species name of your organism. If you did not get a match, say so.
9. What type of organism is this? Use the Latin name to search the internet if you do not know.
1. Only the bases are listed in DNA sequence data. Why aren’t the sugars and phosphates listed?
2. Who curates the largest public database of biological information?
3. How does a database of sequences help researchers around the world?
4. Why do you think it is harder to create synthetic protein sequences and find matches in the database than it is to create synthetic nucleotide sequences and find matches in the database? What is different about protein sequence data?
A process or set of rules to be followed in calculations or other problem- solving operations, especially by a computer.
The storing, retrieving and analyzing of biological data, such as nucleic acid and protein sequences. It can also be used to study pathways, genetics, and protein structure and function. A computer heavy discipline it also employs databases, the internet, and algorithms. Bioinformatics is sometimes called in silico biology because experiments can be performed via computer.
A structured set of data held in a computer, esp. one that is accessible in various ways.
All of an organism’s hereditary information or DNA