What animals were launched into space and by what countries?

What is a heat shield and why is it necessary for any space vehicle to return to Earth?
What animals were launched into space and by what countries? Do you agree withthe ethics of those decisions? (There’s no right answer to this part!)
What is a launch escape system and how does it function?
Describe the significance of the following missions:(a) Mercury-Redstone 3 (b) Gemini 4(c) Gemini 6/7 (d) Gemini 8(e) Apollo 8 (f) Apollo 11
Describe what happened to Apollo 1 and how it occurred.
Identify the function of the following components of the Apollo spacecraft:(a) The lunar module (LM)
(b) The command service module (CSM)(c) The command module (CM)
What happened to Apollo 13 and how did it return to Earth?

Write a good solid paragraph for full credit.

The links here have two images of Jupiter taken in different light wavelength ranges.
https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/pia02873
The first link above is from the Cassini fly-by of Jupiter a few years ago, is a composite image (a combination of various filters using visible wavelengths). The colors were selected to show how Jupiter would appear to the human eye.
The second link below is another composite view of Jupiter, this time from the James Webb space telescope, using infrared wavelengths that have been assigned a color based on the wavelength if the infrared filter used.
Webb’s Jupiter Images Showcase Auroras, Hazes – James Webb Space Telescope
Compare the two images and discuss what you see in the bottom infrared image that doesn’t show up well if at all in the top, visible wavelength image. How about the other way around, what shows up better in the visible image?
Keep in mind that these were taken at different times. The dark shadow in the top image is a shadow of a moon that happened to be passing when the image was collected, so you won’t see that on the bottom image.
Write a good solid paragraph for full credit. Remember that infrared is invisible to the human eye, and also that even images take in the wavelengths of light we see use filters of specific colors that are combined to make the image.

The numbers will not be evenly spaced like on a clock.

Use instructions in the following link to build a simple sundial:
https://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Sundial
Three methods are discussed. I want you to use method 2: Paper plate sundial.
I know in method 2 the sundial looks like a clock. That is MISLEADING. The sundial will NOT come out looking like a clock. If you draw a clock on the paper plate, you get 0/10.
Wherever the instructions refer to “celestial pole,” they mean NORTH. Use a compass or the fake compass on your phone to find the direction to north.
You do not have to make a twelve-hour sundial. Noon to six is good enough. Or 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. Some six-hour interval.
It is very important that you DO NOT MOVE the sundial at any time during construction or after you have finished it. It will not tell correct time if you move it. Push nails or tacks through it to hold it to the ground. Or at least put a rock on it. If your sundial moves overnight, it will not work the next day. Be very careful if you own a cat. If the cat discovers a sundial without a cat on it, the cat will remedy the problem.
After the sundial is built, I want you to take two photos of the shadow showing times on the sundial, on the hour. In other words, take a photo of the sundial when it reads 1pm, and 3pm. Or any two other times that you want. For ten points, send me the photos. Be sure the sundial does not move overnight. If I see any evidence that the sundial has changed in any way between the first photo and the second, NO POINTS. The ultimate mistake is making two sundials, one for each photo. One of your predecessors did that.
The mistake that has cost your predecessors the MOST POINTS is this: writing in numbers on the paper plate to make it look like a clock, then taking pictures as the shadow moves. NO. WRONG. I can easily tell if you did that. You must use the shadow to determine where the numbers go. The numbers will not be evenly spaced like on a clock.
If you are not having any luck, check to see that the Sun is up and the sky is clear, and that there are no shadows from buildings or trees, falling on your sundial.
If you don’t get it, contact me. I can easily straighten you out.

Three page research paper, mla, double spaced, 3 sources, and about astronomy (astronomy: exploring the structures and movements of our solar system and/or the patterns and meaning of the celestial realm) wrtiers desgression for sub topic.

Three Page Research paper, MLA, Double Spaced, 3 Sources, and about astronomy (Astronomy: Exploring the Structures and Movements of Our Solar System and/or The Patterns and Meaning of The Celestial Realm) Wrtiers desgression for sub topic.

Write the science justification.

Rewrite your Abstract, incorporating your new, deeper understanding from Unit #2. As before, it should be between 200-400 words, and include all five basic Abstract sections described in the Project Proposal document. [20 points]
Write the Science Justification. This should be between 400-800 words and present a balanced discussion of background information, the program’s goals, its significance to astronomy in general, and its importance for the specific sub-field of astronomy it addresses. [40 points]
Write the Technical Justification. This should be between 400-800 words and explain how the proposed measurements and/or calculations will achieve the stated scientific goals. [40 points]

All students mus include the following to pass my class : an essay on astronomy/space exploration, all students must include at least 5-7 sources and citations

All students mus include the following to pass my class : An essay on astronomy/space exploration, all students must include at least 5-7 sources and citations

All students mus include the following to pass my class : an essay on astronomy/space exploration, all students must include at least 5-7 sources and citations

All students mus include the following to pass my class : An essay on astronomy/space exploration, all students must include at least 5-7 sources and citations

What is located at the center of our galaxy & how far is the earth from this location?4.

1. What is Pulsar? How is a pulsar similar to a lighthouse?2. If light cannot escape from a black hole, why do we detect X-rays “coming from” black holes?3. What is located at the center of our galaxy & how far is the Earth from this location?4. How long does it take the Milky Way to rotate once? If we assume that the Milky Way formed 13.5 billion years ago, roughly how many times has it rotated?5. Where in our Milky Way galaxy are the oldest stars found? What does this tell us about the formation of the galaxy?6. List three types of galaxy. Which type of galaxy do you live in?7. Explain why astronomers have deduced that galaxies contain a large quantity of “Dark Matter”8. Use Hubble’s Law to determine the distance to a galaxy which is moving away at a velocity of 3,500 km/s. (Assume that H = 70 km/s/Mpc)9. How did humans first understand that the universe is expanding? What type of observations led to this conclusion?10. The Hubble Deep Field is a long-exposure image taken in 1995, which revealed thousands of galaxies, all found in one very small part of the sky. In 2004 a similar, even longer exposure was taken called the Ultra Deep Field. These images have been used to determine that there are about 100 billion galaxies in the observable universe. Assuming that these galaxies are all roughly similar to the Milky Way, estimate the total number of stars in the known universe.