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Chapter 4 and 5, were on the history of African Americans from slavery to WWII. The chapters covered bonded servants , slavery, freedom based on 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution, and the progress made during the Reconstruction period. The response from southern White slavery states, was to apply Jim Crow laws to all aspects of southern society, the resurgence of the KKK, all this pointing to White resistance, a common theme after Blacks made progress. Discussion within the Black community across the country was, what should we do? This question was debated by two men: Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois. The chapters also touch on the beginning of the history of the African American labor movement and WWII. The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (Railroad industry) in 1925 was the first African American Union that would begin to participate in labor strikes and receive a charter from the American Federation of Labor (AFL), this Brotherhood union would be tied to great Pullman Strike that workers shut down the railroads. As time went on, Black labor unions grew across the country in different industries. It was WWII where African Americans would make a major mark in the United States. While they were serving, they were assigned to segregated to Black troops and housing within the military. It would take pressure from NAACP led by Charles Houston to integrate the military, to some degree of success. With the Brown v. Board of Education case won by the Black community, African Americans began to chip away at Jim Crow, “separate but equal” and social movements began to grow. Martin Luther King and his non-violent action meant non-confrontational physical action against the opposition. The peaceful marches and sit-ins, organizing the community, and their success, was the beginning of pushing to a Civil Rights bill in Congress. In 1964, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This Law made it crime to discriminate against people of color and women. Later, Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, that all citizens had the right to vote. Today, there are communities that suggest that some people, minorities, are prevented from voting, using old tactics from the pass. Minority organization have always monitored voting throughout the country to make sure minorities are voting and can vote. As we look back to the 2018 November elections, before and after, we will look for voting issues around the country.
The main topics of chapter 6, is the new urban living for African Americans that started when they migrated from the south to north. In this chapter, urban living meant a continuation of de facto segregation. For example, housing patterns in cities that segregated the African American community into Black urban ghetto’s. With industrialization moving to the west, cities emerging in the west, African American began to move into those new cities. However, they had the same experience that had in the north. As you recall in Mississippi Burning, the Blacks lived outside of town and excluded from any decision making in the local towns council. Participating in local government is part of the freedom we hold under the Constitution, and they had no representation, remember we’re trying to understand powerlessness from the point of view of the minority communities. All this means, is that, when you physically see city communities within cities and compare them to each other, you’ll see physical difference in infrastructure (streets, sewage, water, city services), poor housing, schools in need of repairs, lack of health care, and lack of public facilities like parks and recreation centers. With the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964, this made cities respond to segregation and the lack of effort to improve these minority communities. President Johnson after signing the Civil Rights Act, push for federal monies for these community improvements. Community organizations and city and county government began to develop “community improvement” programs under federal programs, these federal programs where developed by the federal department-Dept. of Housing, Dept. Education, Dept. of labor, Dept. of Commerce(small business), and the U.S Justice Dept. While this participation included the city, state, and federal government, along with community organizations, there was high expectations for change, but it didn’t happened as quickly as the minority community thought it would occur (hint. this is one the reasons people say this was a root of the riots). This brings us back to the discussion on the Martin Luther King civil rights movement and the 60’s Black movement. The Washington and Du Bois debate was brought back, “what should we do?” The civil rights movement was based on the idea of non-violence and political pressure. While the Black movement was far more aggressive, “By any means necessary,” “Self-determination,” “cultural pride of being Black,” and the need for extreme political change. This was the beginning of the “Black power” movement.
The Black power movement would be characterized by Black cultural pride to remind people that there is a Black culture in America, thaat Black history has been eliminated (excluded) from traditional history.There was a push to have courses on this history in schools and universities to included minority groups . SDSU would be one of the first universities to develop courses in Black studies, Chicanx studies, Asian American studies, Native American Indian studies, and Women studies, however, there was a major battle to establish those departments. The Black movement had it’s leaders, the biggest was Melcolm X. Melcolm X spoke about the inequality of Blacks in America, their history, their labor, the oppression of Blacks, and the need for liberation. As more young Blacks began to respond to the Black movement, the more you saw on tv news Blacks and Police confrontations. Back came Melcolm with “advocating autonomy,” independence, and support for “civil disobedience.” There would other leaders who would take the Black movement into different directions, the Nation of Islam with it’s beliefs of clean living-no drugs, alcohol, crime, hard work, develop the Black community, and the readings of Islam. Lew Alcinder became Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Cassius Clay became Muhammad Ali, there many who became members of the Nation of Islam. Then, there leaders who wanted a state just for Blacks, or, let go us back to Africa. In time, the Black movement would change and the “African American” point of view began to emerge.
The 60’s is the era of movements, all our groups would become active through the 60’s into 70’s. The civil rights movements would take a different turn, instead of rioting, groups began to run people for public office, become civil rights lawyers, go against the war in Vietnam, the music culture would have an impact in the American culture. Young White urban and suburban youth would begin to rebel against all the traditions of the 50’s. If you have a chance, see the film, “The stultifying 1950s Created the 1960’s”, extra credit. This film covers how young people changed American society, especially women’s roles. I will refer to this film from time to time. I am going to discuss the 60’s with all our groups to see what they were doing in the 60’s. There were issues that young people felt were extremely important to society and the world. The biggest was the ecology movement, climate change and population growth. While people were rioting, commissions were establish to investigate why they were happening. This commissions found that police were using deadly force and didn’t know how to deal with riots since they were not train to handle riots. These commissions, police dept., and community developed programs to reduce violence, this was the start of Police-Community Relations programs within the police departments, they also began to hire more minorities and women. Later, we will discuss the “Black lives matter’ issues.
Real quick, chapter 6 goes into the following areas, the culture of poverty, labeling people, institutional discrimination against Blacks, glass ceiling for Black women, the status of interracial marriage in the Black community, primary and secondary structural assimilation, Middle class African Americans and education, social mobility of African Americans into different classes. SES-education, jobs, income, live, class and culture. Class culture is the culture of a particular class. Since I come from a working class, what are the things we do as working class people? While I enjoy going to opera, I spend a lot time in the desert with our dune buggies. Keep this paragraph near you, all this will be use for all our groups. Poverty for minorities, labeling of minorities institutional discrimination against minorities, glass ceiling for women, interracial marriage, primary and secondary assimilation, social mobility, class, SES. The second part of your chapters cover all these areas.
Chapter 8 continues the discussion on history and current status of the Mexican American/Latinx community United States. People who haven’t studied this population believe that all these people just arrived and therefore are all “illegal.” What is common across the country, is that many live in barrio’s (communities) where you will find the Spanish language, the Mexican/Mexican American culture, and many are Catholic. Overall, barrio’s are segregated community that has positives and negatives. Positives are being secure in a community, they reinforce culture and language, your all from the same class because of rental cost. When outsiders see the barrio they suggest, they like to live together, they can practice their culture, and they work together. However, they don’t discuss segregation, poor schools, low paying jobs, and people saying, “We are not in Mexico, speak English,” “If I was living in Mexico, I would have to speak Spanish.” “They are illegal and use our government money and go to school free.” Many large cities in the U.S. have a significant Latinx populations-Chicago, Detroit, New York, Los Angeles, Miami, San Antonio. The language and culture was greatly influenced by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the promises of that treaty. For Mexican Americans, the mother culture is a few miles from San Diego or my barrio. Growing up in San Diego, I always remind people, I may have been born in San Diego, but I was also raised in Tijuana. The last point, there is “in-growth” in the Mexican American/Latinx community in the U.S. Back in 1960, there were 5.1 million Mexican Americans in the U,S.. Today, we are 65 million people and the largest minority community in the U.S. This population grew from generations being born here and migration from Mexico and Latin America. I’ve had the opportunity to travel all along the border, what you find is the regional interaction between both sides of the border. The San Diego Tijuana region has more than 50 million people who cross the border every year. When Trump wanted to close the border, it wasn’t just the Latinx community reaction bu the business community on both sides were against this closer. If you have chance when you transfer to a university, look for a class on the U.S. Mexico Border. You’ll be surprise how much business trade takes place everyday, and local the commuters that cross the border.
The Chicano Movement had various characteristics similar to the Black Power Movement, the positive attitudes of culture and language, ability to organize, and became political actors in U.S. politics. The Chicano movement had the same accomplishments and continue to make progress. The 2022 election will be a critical point in the history for the Mexican American/Latino vote. Make sure you read the profile of 5 leaders of the Chicano Movement during the 60’s and 70’s. They are: Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta, Corky Gonzalez, Reis Tijerina, and Anglel Gutierrez. Their organization focused on the following issues: Chavez and Huerta farmworker issues, Gonzalez urban issues and Denver, Colorado, Tijerina issue of the Land Grants that were part of the Treaty between the U.S. and Mexico. Finally, Guteirrez who established the “La Raza Unida Party.” At universities across the southwest had a Chicano student organization called “MECHA.” They fought for more Chicano students on campus, more Chicano professors, Staff, and programs. They would establish programs like Chicano studies to Ethnic Studies. Remember, Chapter 8 has all this information.
Sorry I wrote a lot, but I want you to have plenty of ideas for your assignments and chapters. Since we are not in a classroom, I want to give you as much as information as I can. This is to get you thinking about the issues and help you with your opinions. you don’t have to use all this information. Just focus on the areas that interest you. I will be reducing the amount of information in the lecture, report information, and discussion. We have enough information to digest for this class and I will be more focus.
Select one of the following questions, make sure it’s doubled space, typed, and have your opinions. Put the report number and question number underneath your name.
1. “Relations between dominant and minority groups change as the larger society changes.” Apply this idea to U.S. Black-White relations in the 20th century (1901-2000). How were African Americans in the south and North affected by industrialization and automation? Include a discussion of changing prejudice and discrimination of jobs and residential patterns.
2.Cite and explain 3 functions of the Black Power movement. How did the Black Power movement’s analysis of racial inequality in the U.S. differ from that of the Civil Rights movement? Why?
3.The textbook indicates that there were several reasons the Civil Rights movement succeeded. Please list and discuss these reasons.
4. Discuss the evolution of federal policy on immigration from Mexico over the course of the 20th century. What were the major policies? When and why did they change over time? Did the economy had something to do with change?
5. How did Puerto Rico and Cuban Americans become a minority group? What were the political reasons why Central Americans leave their countries?
6. Give an overview of the Mexican American/Latino(a) social economic status (SES). How are they doing in education, jobs, income, live, primary and secondary assimilation, and interracial marriage. Why is family important for Latinos(as)?
When you are ready to view the film “The Lemon Grove Incident,” click the blue link, click the first box that has “Lemon Grove Incident”(white arrow to start) 58 mins.
My mother attended an all Mexican school in Los Angeles until the 8th grade. She went up to the 8th grade because most kids had to work in the fields. School administrators and teachers, believed that Mexicans were inferior and could only work on jobs that could only use their hands. At the time, throughout the southwest Mexicans, Blacks, and Asians attended segregated school. As you saw in our film on the Brown case, these schools lack the resources to develop good schools, which still exists today. The idea was to teach these kids the basic 3 r’s, reading, riting and rthmatic (reading, writing and arithmetic). I never forget the story she told me about P.E. being the last class of the day. For the last period of the day, they would walked over to the regular middle school to participate in P.E. with her class mates. I asked her, “why did you guys do that?” She said, “when we finished P.E. we were required to take a shower.” “this way, we could take a shower and then they could disinfect the shower for the White kids the next day.” School officials were afraid because Mexican kids carried diseases that other kids would catch.
The film you are about to see, has many of the themes my mom faced attending a segregated school. When I lectured at SDSU School of Education, I would often take my mom to have a discussion in class about her experiences in a segregated school. An issue we tried to convey to students who were becoming elementary school teachers, were personal values. Teachers have their values, while students have theirs. The teach must understand those children’s values. My mom had mostly White teachers who didn’t live in the Barrio, and came from a White working class family. Many didn’t understand the Mexican culture nor spoke Spanish. So, it was English at school, and Spanish at home. However, at school, if a teacher heard a student speak Spanish they were beaten to stop. This “Lemon Grove Incident” took place in Lemon Grove, California during the depression. The depression resulted in over 500,000-1 million Mexicans being deported back to Mexico. Most Mexicans worked in the fields or packing houses. They had poor housing, wages, and working conditions, but they all worked.
Answer all the following question, typed and double space, put your name and the film review number. You many use notes or ideas from previous chapters.
1. Describe what the main issue that the school board had with the Mexican children. Why didn’t they want the White kids attending the same class with Mexicans.
2. How would you describe the living conditions for Mexicans?
3. Describe the role and board make up of the school board. Who did you dislike in on the board, describe them and why? Since the Mexican children made half of the school population, why wasn’t there a Mexican on the school board?
4. What did the Mexican community do to address all these issues? How did they win their case? Was this case before or after the Brown v. Board of Education case?
5. What are your overall thoughts about this case?
What would you study if you are asked, “what are the similarities and differences between African Americans and Latinos(as) on social issues, economic issues, and political issues? As Americans in U.S. History, what patterns of prejudice, discrimination, and hate did they both experience? Keep in mind what the major topics were in chapters 6 and 8: political movements, community, education, health, jobs and income, political access, SES for both? This discussion assignment a general overview of your thoughts about two groups. I can’t wait to read what you come up, it will be an interesting read.